Main positive and negative conductors are made of copper strips cut from sheet. Strip ends go trough fiberglass part where end are folded back to secure the strips in place.
Detail of balance wires and connector. Output cable is already soldered on copper tabs.
Battery housing. Intelligent BMS and all the wiring in place.
Plywood separating battery and BMS space
Cushioning of battery compartment with foam. There is fiberglass “floor” (with blue foam).
Battery fits tightly and does not move with lid on.
This is the temporary battery. 12S / 7700mAh. Battery is a few years old but still can give 250Wh of energy. I did over 200km on this one. Range with this one is between 10km to 20km depending on speed and pedaling. It is made from two old 6S Li-Po donated by Vladimir L. Thank you!
New battery is Li-Ion 12S 8P made of Samsung INR18650-30Q cells. There is 96 of them. I used plastic trays and paper stickers for + pole as additional safety isolation as the included plastic spacer in battery can potentially melt during welding causing short.
Welding was done by my trusty Spot Welder.
Next step is to get amperes out of battery. There is always problem of getting output current from end of battery of this kind. Nickel strip is itself not enough to carry big currents. I got myself 0.5mm copper plate. I used my CNC to mill copper comb which is soldered to ends of nickel strips. Negative pole is simple. The stub is for soldering thick cable. Positive side includes custom made fuse holder.
That’s it for today. Battery still needs all wires soldered and some basic isolation. Last step will be to replace temporary battery with this one and enjoy range between 30km to 90km depending on how hard I will be on throttle.
Got myself half twist throttle. Old thumb lever is now used as brake. It is much more comfortable. Electric braking works great! Thanks to enormous direct drive hub motor, braking force is huge. Only very steep hills cannot be braked with this alone. Slowing down before turn can be almost always done with ebrake. Brake pads will probably last eternity. Braking does charge battery, but recovered energy is insignificant in long run.
VESC speed controller manages braking in very clever way. When speed is high enough, it PWMs motor phases to actually boost BEMF voltage higher than battery – current flows to battery. When RPMs are too low, it just shorts phase wires and all the current flows inside motor phases. In this mode which engages at ~6km/h motor is hard to turn.
This bike has non-standard steering stem of 21.2mm diameter for 22mm handlebars. No standard part of today’s era fits. 🙁 Clamp for handlebars is 22mm. So I needed to find tall handlebars (but no ape hangers) for 22mm clamp. After a lot of searching I finally bought handlebars for Simson Enduro 50cc motorcycle. Little heavy but very solid with shiny chrome. On the left there is heavy duty cell phone holder from RAM-MOUNT. I love it and also use it on motorcycle.
I got myself the biggest and most comfortable seat available in the store. Also new seat tube with clamp. Old one is incompatible. End of ass pain.
I managed to fit freewheel on motor and now I am able to pedal. Nice and slow pedaling saves me about 100W of power. And provides backup in case of drive failure. From ~6 test rides, nothing faulted yet. I am playing with idea to make it fix gear. That would save cables and levers on handlebars for other stuff. And less to go wrong. With motor I never needed to shift anyway.
I bought new tires, suitable for ebikes. Schwalbe Marathon Plus Tour. Not exactly cheap but they work well. Even for light offroad. Rolling resistance is lower.
A lot of other stuff needs to be sorted out. But I love this machine. With tall handlebars I can finally ride it without pain. Riding position is very natural and comfortable.
Bike is my fathers old one, manufactured between 1991 to 1993.
Full steel frame
Magic Pie 3 hub motor
8s/5000mAh old LiPo so far.
Almost two years ago I decided to build spot welder for batteries. After researching my options I choose construction by Albert van Dalen
It is microwave transformer based, controlled by arduino. It switches primary side with two big-ass thyristors. It also does peak detection of sine wave, to turn on welding exactly when phase voltage is highest. It uses double pulse method. Read his article. I think this is best free construction you can build.
I bought Sunkko welding tweezers. But those are crap. I dissembled them and created two independent swing arms. Arms are long enough for very big battery. Pushing force is adjusted by hand. There is a pedal input to keep both hands for welding.
I measured current trough secondary side with Rogowski probe. It was not during welding, but output was connected firmly together. Over 1200A, nice 🙂
And here is some examples of batteries made with this one:
And this one is done with my spot welder by friend of mine whom I borrowed it.
Most of the people are making dipole antennas wrong. Just connecting one pole to center of coax and the other to shield does make poor tri-pole with very distorted radiation pattern. Why tri-pole? Because outer side of shield of coax is carrying RF current and radiates while it should not. On third image you can see poor radiation pattern of dipole without balun.
Solution? There are many solutions to solve this. Voltage mode balun, current mode balun, matched transmission line stubs and so on. But for FPV I like 1:1 current transformer design:
Luckily MACOM ETC1-1-13 is exact part we need. It is small SMD part, cheap and easy to get on Aliexpress or eBay. It is rated for max 250mW and up to 3GHz.
With this information in mind, I have drawn very simple PCB design and milled it on CNC router. Not really knowing if I want it for solder-on SMA connector or direct coax attachment I have designed both and some variations of mechanics. Antennas can be made to any frequency needed, just use longer or shorter poles.
Solder poles and coax
Wrap poles together with PCB by strong sewing thread and wick with thin CA. Super strong and poles should not broke off.
Another method is to solder SMA made for RG-174 directly instead of coax. Wrapping method applies to SMA too.
When everything is soldered and fixed, tuning begins. Put antenna on analyzer and cut off poles by few mm at time on both sides. Frequency starts to shift high and when it is where you want stop cutting. That’s it. SWR 1.4 at 433MHz is what is expected. Dipole is naturally 73ohm plus some reactance, and this type of balun is does not match impedance. It just stops common mode current. So mismatch from 75ohm to 50ohm is still there. But it can be neglected.
And finally this is ready for first flight on my old school test rig. Right is 433MHz for telemetry radio and left is 868MHz for OpenLRSng
Eagle files and DXF for milling of antenna cores will be released in few days.
.brd file for Eagle 6.4
Out of necessity I designed active video splitter based on THS7314 video amplifier and TS5A3159A analog switch. Input and outputs are properly terminated by 75ohm resistors and inputs and outputs are AC coupled. For better high frequency response, outputs are coupled with 330uF and 100nF ceramics. Internally it is powered from 3.3V, allowing to run from 5V input. Input channel switch is inverted by transistor to suit my use case. All components are SMD. Prototype is assembled on CNC milled PCB. Power trough is jump-wired on the bottom side. For future I plan to split design to video switch and video amplifier. Switch will be placed in airplane and controlled via OpenLRS. OpenLRS allows to set pin as switch, instead of servo output, allowing to skip unnecessary MCU to decode servo signal. This prototype will be put in Groundstation where both funcions will be used (switch between live and playback). All components are available trough Farnell.
- 2 inputs switchable by TTL signal
- 4 independent outputs
- Properly terminated inputs and outputs
- AC coupled inputs and outputs
- High end video amplifier
- Solid state analog switch
- 4V to 15V input power
You can download design files here. But beware there is an error. Emitter of PNP transistor shall be connected to 3V3, not VCC.